Although pneumatic conveying is a common method used to transfer powders, granules, and other bulky, dry materials, understanding this type of technology can be a challenge. If you work in dry bulk materials processing or at a handling plant, here’s what you need to know about pneumatic conveying.
What is It?
These systems transfer dry bulk materials through an enclosed pipeline. To create this force, a combination of pressure differential and the flow of gas, like air or nitrogen, is used. The basic components of a pneumatic conveying system include a motive air source, a feeder, a conveying line, and a dust collection system.
How Does it Work?
In a pneumatic conveying system, the system’s air mover generates either pressure or a vacuum. What it creates depends on where the system’s air mover is located. For example, when the air mover is located near the system’s start, it will push air through the system as the system operates under pressure.
What are the Advantages?
Mechanical conveying systems typically use a large number of parts, create excessive amounts of dust, and can also take up a lot of space in a plant. In comparison, pneumatic conveying systems are simple in design, require few moving parts, are accompanied by a flexible layout, and the pipeline can be arranged to fit around equipment that already exists in a plant.
Are There Different Types?
There are two types of pneumatic conveying systems – dense phase and dilute phase. Each is named according to how they operate. However, either can run under pressure or vacuum.